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Country Information on Bosnia and Herzegovina PDF Print E-mail
Map BosniaFrom 1945 till April 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) had been one of the republics of Yugoslavia. This republic had the most ethnically mixed population of all (former) Yugoslavian republics, made up of Serbs (33%, Chr. Orthodox), Croats (18% R.C.) and Muslims, later called Bosniacs (40%). The Muslim element of the population is the result of more than five centuries of Turkish rule of the Balkan. In 1992 hostilities broke out between the different people groups; the war lasted three and a half years. At the end of the war 250,000 people had lost their lives and there were 2.8 million refugees, 600,000 of whom were spread over 58 nations! Industrial production was less than 10% of pre-war levels, 35% of all roads, 40% of all bridges, 60% of all houses and more than 50% of all elementary schools were either damaged or totally destroyed. 75% of the population were unemployed and some 80% needed some sort of humanitarian relief.

The war ended in November of 1995 when the Dayton Peace Agreement was signed. The country was almost equally divided between the Serbian Republic (RS) and the Croat-Muslim Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH). Ten years after the war the political situation is relatively stable and is slowly improving. Since 1995 many people have moved back to their original homes which means that the ethnic groups have partially integrated again, but in spite of many large scale efforts towards reintegration, the situation is still far removed from the pre-war situation.

 

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